➊ Who Invented Pestle Analysis
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PESTLE Analysis - The Simplest explanation ever
It activated in and features twenty-six new laws and measures to keep drivers and pedestrians safe. Since this tragedy, the French government offers extra measures to protect citizens against terrorism. This includes the discussion of taking away the French nationality of any convicted terrorists who are also French-born dual citizens. Although the bill first arrived on the scene back in February , the at-the-time French President Francois Hollande decided to toss this bill. During the world recession, France was expected to fall towards bankruptcy like all the other European countries.
In fact, France suffered two recessions in the span of four years. In the first quarter of , the French economy shrank by 0. Even now, French citizens suffer under heavy taxes. In fact, the country had four different types of taxes: the standard rate for goods and services, transport services, medical prescription, and renovation work. The business community suffers more than any other because the tax rate is roughly 40 percent.
Since heavy taxes make it difficult to employ workers in their home country, many businesses feel compelled to hire outside of it. Tax payments went straight to state expenses like development projects. Because of this high tax rate, France has a matching high unemployment level. It used to be just under 28 percent for men, and under 24 percent for women aged 25 and younger. Those who have a job earn roughly 18, euros per year at a minimum wage. The French maintain strong markets in the agricultural, manufacturing machinery, and electronics industries. Their cosmetics are favored around the world.
The country also has many supermarkets sprinkled worldwide as well. The problems with the economy seem to affect the middle to lower class who face problems with taxation and governmental influence, which brings us to the social factors when doing a PEST analysis. The economy affects the social class in France. With such a disparity between classes, the youth crime rate has risen over the years.
Workers are often on strike for one reasoning or another, reducing the income and productivity of those affected. The country has witnessed racial violence and voiced their complaints by demolishing graves and graffitied buildings. The public is also quite health-conscious. Many people use bikes as their main source of transportation. They also buy fitness equipment to maintain their bodies. And they must be doing something right since the approximate life expectancy for citizens is roughly eighty-one years. And yet, many of these products were invented in France. Like the generator, fridge, and camera. The country puts a ton of resources into the research and development of products.
Back in , 25 percent of the GDP went to research. Now, the government puts more research into health. The Mysorean rockets inspired the development of the Congreve rocket , which the British widely utilized during the Napoleonic Wars and the War of It was brought by the Islamic nations of West Asia, most probably the Arabs. The precise year of introduction is unknown, but it may be safely concluded to be no earlier than Portuguese and Spanish invaders were unpleasantly surprised and even outgunned on occasion. Majapahit -era cetbang cannons were further improved and used in the Demak Sultanate period during the Demak invasion of Portuguese Malacca.
During this period, the iron for manufacturing Javanese cannons was imported from Khorasan in northern Persia. The material was known by Javanese as wesi kurasani Khorasan iron. These cannons varied between pounders, weighing anywhere between 3—8 tons, length of them between 3—6 m. It led to near universal use of the swivel-gun and cannons in the Nusantara archipelago. Saltpeter harvesting was recorded by Dutch and German travelers as being common in even the smallest villages and was collected from the decomposition process of large dung hills specifically piled for the purpose.
The Dutch punishment for possession of non-permitted gunpowder appears to have been amputation. On the origins of gunpowder technology, historian Tonio Andrade remarked, "Scholars today overwhelmingly concur that the gun was invented in China. However, the history of gunpowder is not without controversy. A major problem confronting the study of early gunpowder history is ready access to sources close to the events described. Often the first records potentially describing use of gunpowder in warfare were written several centuries after the fact, and may well have been colored by the contemporary experiences of the chronicler. Ambiguous language can make it difficult to distinguish gunpowder weapons from similar technologies that do not rely on gunpowder. A commonly cited example is a report of the Battle of Mohi in Eastern Europe that mentions a "long lance" sending forth "evil-smelling vapors and smoke", which has been variously interpreted by different historians as the "first-gas attack upon European soil" using gunpowder, "the first use of cannon in Europe", or merely a "toxic gas" with no evidence of gunpowder.
Science and technology historian Bert S. Hall makes the observation that, "It goes without saying, however, that historians bent on special pleading, or simply with axes of their own to grind, can find rich material in these terminological thickets. Another major area of contention in modern studies of the history of gunpowder is regarding the transmission of gunpowder. While the literary and archaeological evidence supports a Chinese origin for gunpowder and guns, the manner in which gunpowder technology was transferred from China to the West is still under debate.
Potassium nitrate is the most important ingredient in terms of both bulk and function because the combustion process releases oxygen from the potassium nitrate, promoting the rapid burning of the other ingredients. Charcoal does not consist of pure carbon; rather, it consists of partially pyrolyzed cellulose , in which the wood is not completely decomposed. Carbon differs from ordinary charcoal. Whereas charcoal's autoignition temperature is relatively low, carbon's is much greater.
Thus, a gunpowder composition containing pure carbon would burn similarly to a match head, at best. The current standard composition for the gunpowder manufactured by pyrotechnicians was adopted as long ago as After manufacturing grains from press-cake in the usual way, his process tumbled the powder with graphite dust for 12 hours. This formed a graphite coating on each grain that reduced its ability to absorb moisture. Neither the use of graphite nor sodium nitrate was new. Another suggestion is that it was William Lobb , the plant collector, who recognised the possibilities of sodium nitrate during his travels in South America.
Lammot du Pont would have known about the use of graphite and probably also knew about the plants in south-west England. In his patent he was careful to state that his claim was for the combination of graphite with sodium nitrate-based powder, rather than for either of the two individual technologies. Powder used for rocketry can use a slower burn rate since it accelerates the projectile for a much longer time—whereas powders for weapons such as flintlocks, cap-locks, or matchlocks need a higher burn rate to accelerate the projectile in a much shorter distance. Cannons usually used lower burn-rate powders, because most would burst with higher burn-rate powders. Besides black powder, there are other historically important types of gunpowder.
Prismatic Brown Powder is a large-grained product the Rottweil Company introduced in in Germany, which was adopted by the British Royal Navy shortly thereafter. The French navy adopted a fine, 3. These brown powders reduced burning rate even further by using as little as 2 percent sulfur and using charcoal made from rye straw that had not been completely charred, hence the brown color.
Lesmok powder was a product developed by DuPont in ,  one of several semi-smokeless products in the industry containing a mixture of black and nitrocellulose powder. It was sold to Winchester and others primarily for. Its advantage was that it was believed at the time to be less corrosive than smokeless powders then in use. It was not understood in the U. The bulkier black powder fouling better disperses primer residue. Failure to mitigate primer corrosion by dispersion caused the false impression that nitrocellulose-based powder caused corrosion. The development of smokeless powders, such as cordite , in the late 19th century created the need for a spark-sensitive priming charge , such as gunpowder.
However, the sulfur content of traditional gunpowders caused corrosion problems with Cordite Mk I and this led to the introduction of a range of sulfur-free gunpowders, of varying grain sizes. Sulfur's main role in gunpowder is to decrease the ignition temperature. A sample reaction for sulfur-free gunpowder would be:. The term black powder was coined in the late 19th century, primarily in the United States , to distinguish prior gunpowder formulations from the new smokeless powders and semi-smokeless powders.
Semi-smokeless powders featured bulk volume properties that approximated black powder, but had significantly reduced amounts of smoke and combustion products. Smokeless powder has different burning properties pressure vs. This can rupture older weapons designed for black powder. Smokeless powders ranged in color from brownish tan to yellow to white. Most of the bulk semi-smokeless powders ceased to be manufactured in the s. The original dry-compounded powder used in 15th-century Europe was known as "Serpentine", either a reference to Satan  or to a common artillery piece that used it.
Vibration during transportation could cause the components to separate again, requiring remixing in the field. Also if the quality of the saltpeter was low for instance if it was contaminated with highly hygroscopic calcium nitrate , or if the powder was simply old due to the mildly hygroscopic nature of potassium nitrate , in humid weather it would need to be re-dried. The dust from "repairing" powder in the field was a major hazard.
Loading cannons or bombards before the powder-making advances of the Renaissance was a skilled art. Fine powder loaded haphazardly or too tightly would burn incompletely or too slowly. Typically, the breech-loading powder chamber in the rear of the piece was filled only about half full, the serpentine powder neither too compressed nor too loose, a wooden bung pounded in to seal the chamber from the barrel when assembled, and the projectile placed on. A carefully determined empty space was necessary for the charge to burn effectively. When the cannon was fired through the touchhole, turbulence from the initial surface combustion caused the rest of the powder to be rapidly exposed to the flame.
The advent of much more powerful and easy to use corned powder changed this procedure, but serpentine was used with older guns into the 17th century. For propellants to oxidize and burn rapidly and effectively, the combustible ingredients must be reduced to the smallest possible particle sizes, and be as thoroughly mixed as possible. Once mixed, however, for better results in a gun, makers discovered that the final product should be in the form of individual dense grains that spread the fire quickly from grain to grain, much as straw or twigs catch fire more quickly than a pile of sawdust.
In late 14th century Europe and China,  gunpowder was improved by wet grinding; liquid, such as distilled spirits  was added during the grinding-together of the ingredients and the moist paste dried afterwards. The principle of wet mixing to prevent the separation of dry ingredients, invented for gunpowder, is used today in the pharmaceutical industry. The balls were then crushed in a mortar by the gunner immediately before use, with the old problem of uneven particle size and packing causing unpredictable results. If the right size particles were chosen, however, the result was a great improvement in power. Forming the damp paste into corn -sized clumps by hand or with the use of a sieve instead of larger balls produced a product after drying that loaded much better, as each tiny piece provided its own surrounding air space that allowed much more rapid combustion than a fine powder.
An example is cited where 15 kilograms 34 lb of serpentine was needed to shoot a kilogram 47 lb ball, but only 8. Because the dry powdered ingredients must be mixed and bonded together for extrusion and cut into grains to maintain the blend, size reduction and mixing is done while the ingredients are damp, usually with water. After , instead of forming grains by hand or with sieves, the damp mill-cake was pressed in molds to increase its density and extract the liquid, forming press-cake.
The pressing took varying amounts of time, depending on conditions such as atmospheric humidity. The hard, dense product was broken again into tiny pieces, which were separated with sieves to produce a uniform product for each purpose: coarse powders for cannons, finer grained powders for muskets, and the finest for small hand guns and priming. Modern corning first compresses the fine black powder meal into blocks with a fixed density 1. Even larger grains were produced for artillery bore diameters greater than about 17 cm 6. By the late 19th century manufacturing focused on standard grades of black powder from Fg used in large bore rifles and shotguns, through FFg medium and small-bore arms such as muskets and fusils , FFFg small-bore rifles and pistols , and FFFFg extreme small bore, short pistols and most commonly for priming flintlocks.
Owing to the large market of antique and replica black-powder firearms in the US, modern black powder substitutes like Pyrodex , Triple Seven and Black Mag3  pellets have been developed since the s. These products, which should not be confused with smokeless powders, aim to produce less fouling solid residue , while maintaining the traditional volumetric measurement system for charges. Claims of less corrosiveness of these products have been controversial however. New cleaning products for black-powder guns have also been developed for this market. For the most powerful black powder, meal powder , a wood charcoal, is used.
The best wood for the purpose is Pacific willow ,  but others such as alder or buckthorn can be used. In Great Britain between the 15th and 19th centuries charcoal from alder buckthorn was greatly prized for gunpowder manufacture; cottonwood was used by the American Confederate States. Originally, this was with a mortar-and-pestle or a similarly operating stamping-mill, using copper, bronze or other non-sparking materials, until supplanted by the rotating ball mill principle with non-sparking bronze or lead.
Historically, a marble or limestone edge runner mill, running on a limestone bed, was used in Great Britain; however, by the mid 19th century this had changed to either an iron-shod stone wheel or a cast iron wheel running on an iron bed. This also helps the extremely soluble saltpeter to mix into the microscopic pores of the very high surface-area charcoal. Around the late 14th century, European powdermakers first began adding liquid during grinding to improve mixing, reduce dust, and with it the risk of explosion.
Not only did corned powder keep better because of its reduced surface area, gunners also found that it was more powerful and easier to load into guns. Before long, powder-makers standardized the process by forcing mill cake through sieves instead of corning powder by hand. The improvement was based on reducing the surface area of a higher density composition. At the beginning of the 19th century, makers increased density further by static pressing. They shoveled damp mill cake into a two-foot square box, placed this beneath a screw press and reduced it to half its volume.
They broke the dried slabs with hammers or rollers, and sorted the granules with sieves into different grades. In the United States, Eleuthere Irenee du Pont , who had learned the trade from Lavoisier, tumbled the dried grains in rotating barrels to round the edges and increase durability during shipping and handling. Sharp grains rounded off in transport, producing fine "meal dust" that changed the burning properties.
Another advance was the manufacture of kiln charcoal by distilling wood in heated iron retorts instead of burning it in earthen pits. Controlling the temperature influenced the power and consistency of the finished gunpowder. In , in response to high prices for Indian saltpeter, DuPont chemists developed a process using potash or mined potassium chloride to convert plentiful Chilean sodium nitrate to potassium nitrate.
The following year the Gatebeck Low Gunpowder Works in Cumbria Great Britain started a plant to manufacture potassium nitrate by essentially the same chemical process. During the 18th century, gunpowder factories became increasingly dependent on mechanical energy. A paper from laments that "Gunpowder is such a nervous and sensitive spirit, that in almost every process of manufacture it changes under our hands as the weather changes. The United Nations Model Regulations on the Transportation of Dangerous Goods and national transportation authorities, such as United States Department of Transportation , have classified gunpowder black powder as a Group A: Primary explosive substance for shipment because it ignites so easily.
Complete manufactured devices containing black powder are usually classified as Group D: Secondary detonating substance, or black powder, or article containing secondary detonating substance , such as firework, class D model rocket engine, etc. As explosives, they all fall into the category of Class 1. Besides its use as a propellant in firearms and artillery, black powder's other main use has been as a blasting powder in quarrying, mining, and road construction including railroad construction. During the 19th century, outside of war emergencies such as the Crimean War or the American Civil War, more black powder was used in these industrial uses than in firearms and artillery.
Dynamite gradually replaced it for those uses. Today, industrial explosives for such uses are still a huge market, but most of the market is in newer explosives rather than black powder. Beginning in the s, gunpowder or smokeless powder was used in rivet guns , stun guns for animals, cable splicers and other industrial construction tools. Industrial shotguns have been used to eliminate persistent material rings in operating rotary kilns such as those for cement, lime, phosphate, etc. Gunpowder has occasionally been employed for other purposes besides weapons, mining, fireworks and construction:.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Explosive once used as propellant in firearms. For other uses, see Gunpowder disambiguation. Main articles: history of gunpowder and timeline of the gunpowder age. Further information: History of the firearm. Main articles: List of inventions in the medieval Islamic world and Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam.
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Manufacture and transportation of gunpowder in the Ottoman Empire: — M. McNeill University of Chicago Press. Retrieved 29 July Berkeley: University of California Press, Asher Rare Books. Retrieved 4 May A bibliography of firework books: works on recreative fireworks from the sixteenth to the twentieth century. Oxford University Press. Historical Dictionary of Medieval India. Scarecrow Press. History of Yuan. The China Review. Arts Asiatiques. Bradbury and Evans. South Vietnamese Notes. Guangju Book Office. Interaction with the outside world and adaptation in Southeast Asian society —These factors contain: structure of population, falling rates, competitionincrease of global who invented pestle analysis, traditions, level of who invented pestle analysiscultural diversity and standards. Who invented pestle analysis Johnston, Sarah Iles ed. Boxer primer. Who invented pestle analysis converts less than half the mass of gunpowder to who invented pestle analysis, most of it turns childrens charter 1889 particulate matter.